Flood Risks: Impacts and Responses to the Built Environment, Free Sample Essay (2023)



What are some of the biggest obstacles that emergency supervisors face during the disaster preparedness phase? Why these problems? Why is it important to solve these problems? Finally, how can these problems be overcome by the emergency manager and other actors or associated companies?

Floods are natural events that often occur during periods of heavy rainfall. Changes in weather patterns alter precipitation intensity and this can lead to future flood events. Emergency situation supervisors face many problems when trying to solve this problem in the response phase.

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Some of the problems include the communication system, geographic location, experience in dealing with the problem, lack of resources to deal with the emerging problem, which in this case is flooding, and many more (Moore & & Barnes, 2004).

Since communication is an extremely essential aspect of any activity by any particular group, its value should not be ignored. The lack of adequate communication systems during the flood response phase would result in poor service delivery to affected people.

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A site's geographic location would determine how quickly or slowly the response team would get to the scene to assist. People who are in areas easily accessible to the team are always easily rescued by the group. Choosing the best team for any emergency situation is always a big problem. Insufficient selection leads to poor service, hence the need to constantly select the best team.

The above problems can be overcome by incorporating qualified personnel into the response team.

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In hard-to-reach areas, a constant search must be made for the best available means. Good communication systems are also extremely important because the response team interacts and it is only through the right interaction that they can provide the best service.

Who will be the most critical actors initially arriving at the scene of the incident? Why are these actors so important? What kind of equipment and training should they have?

The key people to reach the flood site first should be Red Cross members, firefighters, health and mental health volunteers. These people make up the rescue teams. They help evacuate people from the flooded area.

There are two types of floods; those that occur gradually and flash floods that can occur with little or no warning. First responders are therefore trained to help contain both types. The most important skill you need to master is first aid skill and secondly how to operate a radio. However, some may also have the Swiftwater Training Certificate. People should be educated in hydrology, which means learning how water behaves when moving rapidly through a limited area. This helps them read the surface and thus know the location of hidden materials such as vehicles, concrete poles and others.

Guard swimming is also another skill that rescuers learn. It helps stay safe. Teamwork is also another highly regarded skill that a person must possess. Working as a team helps the team achieve their goals first.

Equipment taken during the rescue operation included megaphones and whistles to help with communication, ropes used to get people to safety, and extra life jackets that would help keep them warm. In addition, they also have flashlights and torches to keep in touch.

What are some of the most important and pressing considerations to take into account when dealing with this disaster scenario? What threats need to be assessed and overcome? Who needs to be warned or evacuated? Will it be necessary to organize transport and accommodation?

There are important considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with flooding. Considerations include the study of flood frequency, flood duration and flood impact, and the role of mitigation in flood control (blaster, 1973).

There are hazards in flood protection that need to be assessed. Collecting hydrological data directly from nearby rivers is always very important, although it can be time consuming. When data has been collected through flow measurements over a long period of time, models can be used to obtain the statistical frequency of flood events. The importance of hazard assessments, determined based on available remote sensing data, field observations and damage reports, is that they can be used in cases where quantitative data is not available.

As mentioned earlier, the importance of determining the statistical frequency is that it is useful in determining its probability. In areas without long-term records, assessments are always very difficult.

Depending on the flood situation, people who are near rivers or in flood-prone areas must be alerted or evacuated. Anyone remaining in flood-prone areas must be evacuated. If the distances to be covered are long, those affected must be provided with transport and accommodation options.

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List the steps that would need to be taken, starting with the most pressing requirements and ending with the final details. How is emergency medical care distributed? Does mass screening need to be set up? Does the affected area need to be isolated?

Actions taken to combat or reduce flooding and its effects include what is commonly known as the 3M Approach. contains

  • Measurement
  • Mapping (Schumann, 2011)
  • Model

Failure to do what should be done in a timely manner has historically frustrated the efforts of many governments or organizations to have a lasting impact on floods. However, total flood prevention can be difficult, but with good preparation, flood prevention is easy. The points listed above start with planning. Longer warnings always make people ready and therefore help them keep their belongings safe (Moore, 2004).

Emergency medical care for people affected by floods is very important, as is their distribution. Medical supplies can be delivered to areas where other modes of transport are impossible through the use of helicopters. In cases where the flooding is not extreme, medicines are distributed by doctors or volunteers.

Mass screenings need to be set up in areas where the impact of flooding has been extreme and many people have been affected. Flooded areas are likely to pose a greater threat to individuals contracting waterborne diseases and therefore require mass screening. Isolating an area may also be necessary to distinguish flood prone areas from those that are not. Isolated areas cannot be reached by others unless the tide subsides.

Why is emergency management so important at this stage? Could a disorganized response really lead to more confusion and chaos? How can resources and personnel be distributed efficiently with a central command post?

Emergency management is important in all phases of disaster management. However, its importance is very important at this stage for the following reasons. Emergency management helps to get through emergencies because there is always a plan for it. With a good plan anything is possible. Secondly, emergency management helps you to find the best way to deal with problems that arise. A survival kit is also another way that emergency management helps a person during events like flooding. The kit contains the necessary materials to overcome the emergency (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2008).

Confusion and chaos arise in situations where, after an emergency, the management team reacts in a disorganized manner. This is always due to a lack of emergency management tips.

Having a central command post during emergencies like flooding is very healthy to solve the problem at hand efficiently. Stakeholders involved in resolving the emergency, e.g. B. Flooding, always come together at the command post and work cooperatively to successfully mitigate the emergency by implementing a single incident action plan. A unified command post helps in the following ways

  • Lets experts in where only experts can work on what they can
  • It empowers each stakeholder to give their opinion on how they think the emergency will be managed.

The right command post ensures that only qualified personnel are entrusted with certain tasks. This is because they are the only ones with authority in this area, so they can always offer you the best.

What are the first steps that must be taken before restore operations can take place? Why is disaster recovery so important? Should we strive to make the area better than it was before the incident?

Recovery involves rebuilding the entire community so that affected individuals, government, and other entities can now function independently while returning to normal and anticipating future dangers (Clements, 2009).

The following must be done before restore operations can take place. Employees must obtain permission to enter the premises. The extent of the damage must also be analyzed before starting the recovery. Those planning the recovery process should also seek professional advice. The command center for recovery efforts should also be visited before starting the recovery process. Another important aspect to consider before beginning the recovery process is to establish recovery site security procedures. Finally, before the recovery process begins, a decision must also be made on how to treat the recovered materials.

Recovering from trauma experienced during a flood can be quite challenging for many people. Therefore, appropriate restorative steps must be taken to ensure people heal properly. Some of the recovery efforts include: providing medical assistance, providing assistance that includes food, water, etc., cleaning up the area, rebuilding damaged buildings, reopening schools, businesses and all affected places. Disaster recovery is so important that it seeks to bring affected people back to normal. People recovering from disasters always tend to hold negative views, so the recovery process pushes them to appreciate life again.

The recovery team must strive to make the area a better place than it was. When an area is left in the same or worse condition than before, people have bad feelings about those cases. Hence the need to make an area a better place than it was before.

How can public or non-profit organizations help with recovery operations? Should volunteers be sought and used? How could public donations be collected? How was the debris recovered and removed?

The public and non-profit organizations have been deployed in recovery operations. Nonprofit organizations serve as healthcare providers, emergency shelters, and search and rescue personnel. In addition, they offer psychological training as well as emergency communication. The public can also be used to help the affected group by being with them. It always makes these people feel valued. They always feel that people are with them even in their difficulties. The role of public and non-profit organizations such as churches cannot be underestimated.

In order for the recovery process to be a success, volunteers must be employed. Volunteers are people willing to give help for free. These volunteers may have dealt with similar cases before and are therefore better placed to serve and help those affected.

However, team members should make an effort to get to know the real volunteers. Some may volunteer for sinister motives. These people always slow down or reduce the speed at which the recovery process is achieved. These people always exploit the vulnerable condition of those affected for their own selfish advantage. However, this vice must be condemned.

Public donations are very useful to help people recover from floods and their aftermath. People affected by the floods need food, quick medical care and other basic needs. Donations from the public, if not collected through the right channels, may not help the cause for which they are intended. Special bodies should always be created to manage public donations.

Immediate cleaning of debris after flooding prevents odors, diseases. fouling of drains and much more. Below are some of the methods used to remove scale. Plants must be disposed of properly. They must be managed in a way that avoids runoff into streams, ditches and other surface water sources (Lamond, 2012).

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Destroyed structures should be managed by the property owner and contractors when construction sites are affected by flooding. Sediments should also be disposed of as solid waste.

Wherever waste water is produced during waste disposal, this waste does not necessarily have to be separated. It must be disposed of in a landfill mixed with other flood debris.

Is PR Management Crucial During the Recovery Process? How could information be conveyed to the public to reassure them that whatever needs to be done is being done? How might the survivor's mental health have been affected by the disaster? Should crisis advisors be sought for dealing with survivors and victims of disasters?

Public relations management is very important during the recovery process.

Good public relations promote a good recovery. With poor public relations, less can be done to speed up the recovery process. The comfort of those affected is of paramount importance in the recovery phase. People affected by floods need peace of mind at all times that everything is okay and that help is always on the way.

When people are left in situations where they are not informed promptly, panic always ensues. The best way to let the public know all is well is to use leaders they trust. Information that comes from someone with more authority or someone with experience in a particular area is more secure than published information.

The mental health of flood survivors can sometimes be compromised. This is especially the case when the floods were so severe that they caused serious destruction. Survivors may have seen some of their family members drown as a result of the floods. Sometimes they themselves were only just saved from death.

In order for these people to fully heal, they need the services of a crisis counselor to fully recover. Crisis advisors are trained for such topics and thus help those affected to cope with their challenges.

How important is it to foster a culture of vulnerability reduction to prevent disasters from occurring, or at least to mitigate their impact when they do occur?

Vulnerability is a set of conditions arising from physical, economic, environmental, and social factors that increase a person's vulnerability to the effects of hazards.

Fostering a culture of vulnerability helps prevent disasters and mitigate their impact. This is because the culture of vulnerability makes people aware of the problems they face. If someone knows what is going on, then he or she is prepared for anything. Being prepared means solutions to problems can be found before it's too late.

Besides raising people's awareness, they also have strong coping skills. They are always on the alert and therefore able to act as needed, hence they help in disaster prevention.

How can technology be used to facilitate the recovery process? What tools are available to disaster recovery managers? In the future, can the lessons learned from this disaster relief and recovery be used to better help communities respond and cope with a disaster? What new and possibly unexpected threats might emerge in the future? Technology can be used to create tools that lead to faster healing. For the recovery process to be successful, the technology must be used well. With the right technology, the transport of necessary medicines, personnel and other important goods is possible without any problems.

Tools available to emergency managers during the recovery process include weather and satellite sensors, fiber optics, videophones, and medical equipment. The lessons learned from this disaster relief are very helpful in dealing with future events. The reaction when dealing with floods can be used when dealing with other types of floods. One of the possible threats that can come up while dealing with flooding is the network problem. During floods, the network connection is always manipulated. It turns out it's the unexpected threats of dealing with floods. The unavailability of the network makes smooth communication difficult.


Clements, B. (2009). Disasters and Public Health: Planning and Response. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier

Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A., & Coppla, D.P. (2008). Introduction to emergency management (3.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.

Lamond, J (2012). Flood Hazards: Impacts and Responses to the Built Environment. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Moore, R. & Barnes, J. (2004). Faces of the Tide: Hurricane Floyd remembered. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Rao, S. R. (2006). Resource reclamation and metallurgical waste recycling. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Schumann, A. (2011). Flood risk assessment and management, how to specify hydrological pressures, their consequences and uncertainties. Berlin. jumper.

(Video) Impacts of Natural Hazards and Disasters – Part 1

Radiator, A.N. (1973). Environmental Sciences: Interaction between natural systems and humans. California: Hamilton Publishing Company.

Wisner B, Gaillard JC & Kelman I (2012). The Routledge Handbook for Hazard and Disaster Risk Reduction. London: Rouledge.

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What are the impacts to the areas with flooding? ›

Floods can cause power, water, and gas outages; disrupt transportation routes and commercial supplies; pollute drinking water systems; damage homes, buildings, and roads; and cause severe environmental problems including landslides and mudslides.

What is a short paragraph about flooding? ›

Floods are a type of natural disaster that can cause heavy destruction to life and property. It is a condition when rainwater accumulates at a place, flooding populated areas. They can also lead to the loss of numerous lives. At times, it can be highly dangerous and can wipe off an entire village or city.

What effects can a flood have on human life and a community? ›

Loss of human life. Property and infrastructure damage. Road closures, erosion, and landslide risks. Crop destruction and livestock loss.

How do humans impact flood hazards? ›

Human Development

Draining and paving over wetlands and flood plains removes some of the natural overflow capacity of the water system, forcing the excess through the few channels still available and increasing the chances for spillover into cities and towns.

What are 3 environmental impacts of flooding? ›

Impacts on the environment

Detrimental environmental effects of flooding can include soil and bank erosion, bed erosion, siltation or landslides. It can damage vegetation and pollutants carried by flood water can impact on water quality, habitats and flora and fauna.

What are 3 negative impacts of flooding? ›

As most people are well aware, the immediate impacts of flooding include loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of crops, loss of livestock, and deterioration of health conditions owing to waterborne diseases.

What is the cause and effect of flooding? ›

Severe flooding is caused by atmospheric conditions that lead to heavy rain or the rapid melting of snow and ice. Geography can also make an area more likely to flood. For example, areas near rivers and cities are often at risk for flash floods. A flood is an overflow of water onto land that is normally dry.

Why is flooding an issue? ›

Flood waters carry along with them sand, silt, and other debris as they travel. When the velocity of the flash flood slows, it begins depositing this debris. Floods can leave behind large amounts of silt and other debris that can make travel difficult and can be costly to remove.

What is a sentence describing flood? ›

Example Sentences

a flood of phone calls Seeing her again brought back a flood of memories. Verb Heavy rains flooded the valley. The rivers are close to flooding. The valley flooded after the heavy rains.

Which of the following is a positive impact of flooding on the environment? ›

Flood waters can carry nutrient-rich sediments which contribute to a fertile environment for vegetation. Floodplains are beneficial for wildlife by creating a variety of habitats for fish and other animals.

What are the 2 human factors that could increase flood risk? ›

Besides climate change, many other types of human influences could affect the frequency and magnitude of floods—for example, dams, floodwater management activities, agricultural practices, and changes in land use.

Which of the following is a negative impact that flooding can have on the environment? ›

Erosion and sedimentation destroy vegetation and prevent plant growth because of insufficient nutrients. Eroded materials can also end up in rivers, lakes, and oceans, affecting water quality and aquatic life. These often clog streams, inhibiting fish migration and reproduction.

What are the 5 main factors that contribute to flooding? ›

What Causes Floods?
  • Heavy rainfall resulting from tropical weather disturbances.
  • Deforestation.
  • Improper agricultural practices.
  • Inadequate design of drainage channels and structures.
  • Inadequate maintenance of drainage facilities, blockage by debris brought by flood waters.
  • Construction of settlements in flood plains.

What are the 3 main impacts on the environment? ›

The list of issues surrounding our environment go on, but there are three major ones that affect the majority of them overall: global warming and climate change; water pollution and ocean acidification; and loss of biodiversity.

Is flooding an environmental health issue? ›

Flood waters often contain a variety of contaminants. In some cases, floods can overwhelm a region's drainage or wastewater treatment systems, increasing the risk of exposure to bacteria, parasites, and other unhealthy pollutants.

What is one major cause of floods *? ›

The most common cause of flooding is water due to rain and/or snowmelt that accumulates faster than soils can absorb it or rivers can carry it away. Approximately seventy-five percent of all Presidential disaster declarations are associated with flooding.

What are the primary and secondary effects of flooding? ›

Hazards associated with flooding can be divided into primary hazards that occur due to contact with water, secondary effects that occur because of the flooding, such as disruption of services, health impacts such as famine and disease, and tertiary effects such as changes in the position of river channels.

How does flooding affect water quality? ›

During a downpour, rainwater hits pavement and flows into drains, picking up pollutants like oil, fertilizers, and road salts along the way. These pollutants can flow into nearby water bodies, where they can harm wildlife, make swimming and boating unsafe, or even contaminate drinking water.

What is flood in one word? ›

Flood, flash flood, deluge, freshet, inundation refer to the overflowing of normally dry areas, often after heavy rains.

What will happen during a flood? ›

During a flood, water levels and the rate the water is flowing can quickly change. Remain aware and monitor local radio and television outlets. Avoid flood waters at all costs and evacuate immediately when water starts to rise.

How do you prevent floods in a sentence? ›

A well-maintained river has a greater capacity and quicker flow; both are needed at times of high rainfall to prevent flooding. State-run television showed families being evacuated from fishing boats, and shopkeepers stacked sandbags to prevent flooding as drains became clogged amid torrential rains.

What is the negative impact of floods on the economy? ›

A flood event may result in physical damage to the building stock, essential facilities, transportation systems, utilities, and agricultural products and vehicles. The initial damage results in induced physical damage and direct social and economic losses, which in turn lead to other indirect economic losses.

What are 3 positive effects of floods? ›

Floods inundate wetlands with fresh waste. They also carry and deposit nutrient-rich sediments that support both plant and animal life in wetlands. In addition, flooding adds nutrients to lakes and streams that help support healthy fisheries.

What are positive facts about floods? ›

Naturally frequent flooding makes floodplains the “lifeblood” to surrounding areas. They provide clean water and wildlife habitat among many other benefits including one of the most visible functions, the ability to store large volumes of flood water and slowly release these waters over time.

What are 5 ways to prepare for a flood? ›

What to do before a flood
  1. Get flood insurance. Most homeowners insurance does not cover flood damage. ...
  2. Know your flood risk. Look up your address in the Flood Map Service Center to learn if you live, work, or travel in areas that are prone to flooding.
  3. Take a household inventory. ...
  4. Store important documents.

How do humans adapt to floods? ›

Flood barriers to protect critical infrastructure include levees, dikes, and seawalls. A related strategy is floodproofing, which involves elevating critical equipment or placing it within waterproof containers or foundation systems.

What is the most important factor that causes flooding? ›

Rainfall is the most important factor in creating a flood

Put simply, floods occur when the amount of water flowing from a catchment exceeds the capacity of its drains, creeks and rivers. This process begins with rainfall, but is affected by many other factors.

What factors can reduce the risk of flooding? ›

These can be physical barriers such as levees or seawalls, natural barriers such as wetlands or open spaces, or non-structural policy measures such as reducing development in flood prone areas.

How would you describe water flooding? ›

Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood.

How do you describe a flood scene? ›

The water level in the river rose steadily until the water split over, flooding many low-lying areas. My village was one of the areas affected and we had to move our belongings to higher ground. There, we waited for rescue teams to arrive. The whole village was submerged in about one meter of water.

What are the short term effects of flooding? ›

People can get trapped in their houses by the quick rising waters. Pollution: Floods will wash chemicals and sewage into the water. The contaminated water will spread quickly over an area – causing public health issues and killing fish. Property: As flood waters rise they can flow into low-lying properties.

How do you explain flood to a child? ›

Lesson Summary

A flood is when water covers land that is usually dry, while flash floods are floods that happen very quickly. Floods can be caused by many different events, including hurricanes, melting snow, and breaking dams. The ground becomes saturated with, or full of, water and the water has to rise.

How can we prevent flooding? ›

Flood-proof Structures
  1. Elevate the furnace, water heater, air conditioner and other utilities.
  2. Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent flood water back ups.
  3. Construct interior barriers to stop low level floodwater from entering basements.
  4. Seal walls in basements with waterproofing compounds to avoid seepage.

What are the key words for flooding? ›

The main terms for flooding

In North America, these three terms are known as fluvial, pluvial and storm surge flooding, respectively.

How do you react to a flood? ›

What to do During a Flood Warning or Flash Flood Warning
  1. Move immediately to higher ground or stay on high ground.
  2. Continue to check the media for emergency information.
  3. Follow instructions from public safety officials. ...
  4. If you must evacuate your home, take only essential items and bring your pets if safe to do so.

What is a real life example of a flood? ›

China's Yellow River valley has seen some of the world's worst floods in the past 100 years. The 1931 Yellow River flood is one of the most devastating natural disasters ever recorded—almost a million people drowned, and even more were left homeless.

What are 3 fun facts about floods? ›

Ninety percent of all natural disasters in- volve flooding. Floods can bring walls of water 20 feet or higher. Just 1 inch of flood water can cause $27,000 in damage to your home. If you live in a 100-year floodplain, there's more than a 1 in 4 chance you'll be flooded during a 30-year mortgage.

How long can floods last? ›

Floods can occur within minutes or over a long period, and may last days, weeks, or longer. Floods are the most common and widespread of all weather-related natural disasters. Flash floods are the most dangerous kind of floods, because they combine the destructive power of a flood with incredible speed.


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