Methodology and methods are two terms that scholars have used interchangeably. The practice is unfortunate because they are not the same. The first refers to the philosophy and the second refers to the technical procedures applied to conduct the research. The word methodology encompasses two nouns: method and ology, which means branch of knowledge; therefore, methodology is a branch of knowledge dealing with the general principles or axioms of generating new knowledge. It refers to the logical and philosophical assumptions that underlie any study of the natural, social or human sciences, articulated or otherwise.
Do not use plagiarized sources. Get your custom essay at
" Research Methodology "
Get custom paper
¡NUEVO!clever combination with writer
Simply put, methodology refers to how each rationale, reality, values, and what counts as knowledge inform research.
On the other hand, methods are the techniques and procedures followed to carry out an investigation and are determined by the methodology (ie sampling, data collection, data analysis and presentation of results, as well as theories, conceptual frameworks, taxonomies and models). Even the focus and intent of the research and the research questions themselves are determined by the methodology (McGregor, 2010).
Get quality help now
“Rhizman is absolutely amazing at what he does. I highly recommend if you need a job done”
+84Relevant experts are online
In methodology, we study the various steps that a researcher usually goes through when studying his research problem, along with the logic behind them. It is necessary that the researcher knows not only the research methods/techniques, but also the methodology. (Kothari, 2004).
Next, the systematic analysis of the principles of methods, rules and postulates used in the research that define the methodology: 1. Formulation of the research problem
Defining the research question is the most important step in carrying out any investigation, as it directs the applied research method (Yin, 2003).
Know the estimated price of your work
Number of pages
write my paper
You still won't be charged!
Sebastian et al, (2011) explain that it requires an open mind when formulating the research question. At the same time, the researcher is required to familiarize himself with possible research methods and be aware of their requirements. A researcher should examine all available literature to become familiar with the selected problem.
2. Literature review
A literature review looks at published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a given time period. In-depth knowledge of the field's literature is essential for most research work. Literature reviews provide a useful guide to a specific topic and can provide an overview or act as a stepping stone. They also provide a solid basis for investigating a research paper. Depending on the situation, the literature review can assess sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant ones (The Writing Center, 2010-2013). For purposes of literature review, journal abstracts and indexing, conference proceedings, government reports, books, etc. should be used depending on the nature of the problem.
3. Development of a working hypothesis
A hypothesis is a statement of the predicted relationship between two or more variables. As a researcher, you don't know a phenomenon, but you have a hunch (theory) to form the basis of certain assumptions or conjectures. He tests them by gathering information that will allow him to conclude whether his guess was correct. The verification process has one of three results, correct, partially correct, and incorrect. Without this verification process, you cannot conclude anything about the validity of your assumptions. Therefore, hypotheses are guesses, assumptions, suspicions, statements or ideas about a phenomenon, relationship or situation, whose reality or truth you do not know. These hypotheses form the basis of the research (Slideshare, 2013).
4. Elaborate the research design The research design is the arrangement of the conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a particular way that aims to combine relevance for the purpose of the research with economy of procedure (Slideshare , 2013). To develop a complete research project, it is valuable to understand the nature of the question from a philosophical point of view. The lack of reflection on philosophical issues can seriously affect the quality of management research (Eaterby-Smith et al, 2008). The steps involved in the research project according to (Umesh) are: a) The means of obtaining the information
b) Availability and skills of the researcher and his staff (if any) c) Explanation of how the selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning that led to the selection. d) The time available for the investigation
e) The cost factor related to the research, ie the funding available for the purpose.
5. Determining the sample design The sample design is a defined plan that is determined before data is collected to obtain a sample from a given population. The sample design to be used should be decided by the researcher taking into account the nature of the research and other related factors. According to the Dictionary of Statistics and Probability, (2013) a sampling design consists of two elements: 1. Sampling method. The sampling method refers to the rules and procedures by which some elements of the population are included in the sample.
Some of the common sampling methods used are simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. 2. Estimator. The estimation process for calculating sample statistics is called estimation. Different sampling methods may use different estimators. For example, the formula for calculating an average score with a simple random sample is different than the formula for calculating an average score with a stratified sample. The “best” sample design depends on the research objectives and research resources.
6. Data collection
According to Basic Tools for Process Improvement, Data Collection (1998-2013), data collection is obtaining useful information about the key quality characteristics produced by your process. Data collection allows a team to formulate and test working assumptions about a process and develop insights that will lead to improvement in key product or service quality characteristics. In short, data collection helps establish a factual basis for decision making. To collect data consistently, you will need to develop a data collection plan.
The developed data collection plan should answer the following question: 1. Why do we want the data? What will we do with the data once collected? You must decide a purpose for collecting the data 2. Where will we collect the data? The location where data is collected must be clearly identified. 3. What kind of data will we collect? In general, data can be classified into two main types: attribute data and variable data 4. Who will collect the data? The people closest to the data, the process workers, must collect the data 5. How do we collect the right data? Collect the data that best describes the situation at hand.
7. Data analysis
Eisenhardt, (1989) explains that the analysis is an interactive process initiated with the development and presentation of an initial set of theoretical propositions based on the evidence of the first phase of data collection, during the fieldwork and the theoretical assumptions associated with it. . the theoretical framework. According to Kothari, (2004) the term analysis refers to the calculation of certain measures along with the search for existing relationship patterns between groups of data. Thus, “in the analysis process, relationships or differences that support or conflict with the original or new hypotheses must be subjected to tests of statistical significance to determine how validly the data can indicate some conclusion.
Process operations in data analysis are: a. Editing: It is a process of examining the collected raw data for errors and omissions and correcting them where possible. B. Coding: Refers to the process of assigning numbers or other symbols to responses so that responses can be classified into a limited number of categories or classes. C. Classification: It is the process of ordering data into groups or classes based on common characteristics. d. Tabulation: consists of organizing the data in some kind of concise and logical order.
Hypothesis testing refers to the formal procedures used by statisticians to accept or reject statistical hypotheses (What is Hypothesis Testing, 2013). Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis based on sample data (Statistics and Probability Dictionary, 2013). This process is called hypothesis testing. A hypothesis test consists of four steps. a) Formulate the hypotheses. This involves establishing the null and alternative hypotheses. Hypotheses are formulated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive.
That is, if one is true, the other must be false; and vice versa. b) Identify the test statistic. This involves specifying the statistics (eg, an average score, a proportion) that will be used to assess the validity of the null hypothesis. c) Formulate a decision rule. A decision rule is a procedure that the researcher uses to decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. d) Test the null hypothesis. Use the decision rule to evaluate the test statistic. If the statistic is consistent with the null hypothesis, you cannot reject the null hypothesis; otherwise, reject the null hypothesis.
Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from facts collected after an analytical and/or experimental study (Kothari, 2004). The task of interpretation has two main aspects, namely (i) the effort to establish continuity in the research, relating the results of a given study with those of another, and (ii) the establishment of some explanatory concepts. Interpretation is considered a basic component of the research process for the following reasons: a) It is through interpretation that the researcher can fully understand the abstract principle that operates under his findings.
With this, you can link your findings with those of other studies, having the same abstract principle, and thus you can predict about the concrete world of events. New queries can test these predictions later. In this way, continuity in the investigation can be maintained. b) Interpretation leads to the establishment of explanatory concepts that can serve as a guide for future research. c) The researcher can better appreciate just through interpretation why his findings are what they are and can make others understand the real significance of his research findings. d) Interpretation of exploratory research study results often results in hypotheses for experimental research and, as such, interpretation is involved in the transition from exploratory to experimental research. 10written report
Features of Good report, (2013) defines a report as an informative piece of writing that describes a set of actions and analyzes any results in response to a specific summary. A quick definition might be: "This is what I did and this is what it means." Kothari, (2004) describes the following steps as different steps to writing a report: a. Logical theme analysis: There are two ways to develop a theme (i) logically and (ii) chronologically. Logical development is based on mental connections and associations between one thing and another through analysis. Contains materials from the simplest to the most complex structures. Chronological development is based on a connection or sequence in time or occurrence, instructions to do or do follow chronological order. B. Preparation of the final result: sketches are the framework on which long written works are built.
They are an aid to the logical organization of the material and a reminder of points to emphasize in the report. w. Writing: the researcher writes what he did in the context of his study. He will note the procedure adopted by him in compiling the material for his study together with the limitations encountered, the technique of analysis adopted, the general findings and generalizations, and the various suggestions he wishes to offer on the problem in question. d. Rewrite and refine the draft: When rewriting and polishing, the report should be reviewed for weaknesses in logical development or presentation.
You should also check that the material presented, as presented, has unity and cohesiveness. In addition, the researcher must pay attention to whether his draft was consistent or not. You must review the mechanics of writing: grammar, spelling and usage. my. Preparation of the final bibliography: the bibliography must contain all the works consulted by the researcher. F. Final Draft Writing: When writing the final draft, the researcher should avoid abstract terminology and technical jargon. Illustrations and examples based on common experiences should be incorporated into the final draft as they are primarily used to communicate the research results to others.
The format suggested below is the same format used in most published articles, as described in the Guide to Writing Research Reports (2013). 1) Title: The title must contain the description of the study in a single line. In many cases, the title will mention the independent and dependent variables. Your title should be a brief but accurate reflection of the content of the report 2) Summary: The summary is a brief summary of the report. It should contain a brief description of the rationale and method, results and discussion sections. It should be a complete but concise summary of the entire report that will allow readers to decide whether they want to read further.
A helpful rule of thumb is to try to write four concise sentences that describe: (1) Why you did it, (2) What you did, (3) What results you got, and (4) What you concluded. Write the summary after you have written the rest of the report. 3) Introduction (Why you did it): The Introduction should present the reasoning behind the specific study you are describing. This means that the reader, having read the introduction, should feel able to anticipate what your study will entail and should allow someone who is not an expert to understand why you did this study. For this reason, the introduction will start at a general background level and move on to the specific reasons and objectives of the study. This will normally include a review of previous work in the field and an explanation of theoretical or practical reasons for undertaking the study. 4) Method (how you did it): In the method section, you describe the essential aspects of how you collected your data.
This section should contain enough information to allow the reader to repeat the study, but should exclude any extraneous details. It explains about (i) the research participants, (ii) the apparatus used, (iii) the materials used, (iv) the design and (v) the procedure. 5) Results (what you discovered): Start this section with a description of how you handled your data. This means that you must describe what you get from all the answers that each participant gave to the analyzed scores. Follow the description of data processing with a clear and concise summary of the data using descriptive statistics. 6) Discussion (What do you think it means): This is the section where you interpret the study results and discuss their meaning. It is important that your discussion relates to the issues raised in the introduction, as the introduction presented the reasons for conducting the study and the results should provide more detail on these issues.
You should link the arguments presented in this section to the research problems and hypotheses raised in the introduction section. In particular: (i) How do your results compare with your research questions and/or predictions? (ii) How do your results compare with relevant published results? (iii) What are the implications for future research? 7) References: It must contain all the works consulted by the researcher. 8) Appendices: You should include here all material that might have disturbed or impaired the "flow" of the report itself, not just use it as a container to hold things you wanted to say but don't fit in the report. . Therefore, the contents of the Appendices generally consist of raw data, statistical formulas and calculations, extensive protocols, stimulus examples and stimulus preparation details, etc. Bibliography
1. Basic Tools for Process Improvement, Data Collection. (1998-2013). Retrieved September 15, 2013 from the Balance Scorecard Institute, Strategy Management Group: http://www.balancedscorecard.org/portals/0/pdf/datacoll.pdf 2. Eaterby-Smith. (2008). Management Research: An Introduction. SAGE Publishers Ltd. 3. Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Construction of theories from the investigation of case studies. Management Academy Review, 14 (4) 532-550. 4. Characteristics of a good report. (2013). Retrieved 15 September 2013 from the University of Reading, Malaysia: http://www.reading.ac.uk/internal/studyadvice/StudyResources/Essays/sta-featuresreports.aspx 5. Guide to writing research reports. (2013). Retrieved 15 September 2013 from the University of Essex, UK: http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology/department/A-Z_files/GUIDE%20TO%20WRITING%20RESEARCH%20REPORTS.pdf
6. Kothari. (2004). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques Second Edition. Jaipur, India: New Age International Publishers Limited. 7. McGregor, J.A. (2010). Paradigm, Methodology and Method: Intellectual Integrity in the Consumer Exchange. International Journal of Consumer Studies 34 . 8. Sebastian Reiter, GS (2011). Deferred research method selection strategy: deciding between grounded theory and phenomenology. E-Journal of Business Research Methods Volume 9. 9. Share slides. (2013). Retrieved September 14, 2013 from Slideshare.Inc: http://www.slideshare.net/rao_sahab/hypothesis-12915876?from_search=1 10. Slideshare. (2013). Retrieved September 14, 2013 from Slideshare.Inc: http://www.slideshare.net/sagar_sambare/research-design-13174653?from_search=4 11. Statistics and probability dictionary. (2013). consulted in september
- Restate your thesis or research problem. ...
- Explain the approach you chose. ...
- Explain any uncommon methodology you use. ...
- Describe how you collected the data you used. ...
- Explain the methods you used to analyze the data you collected. ...
- Evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made.
Interviews (which can be unstructured, semi-structured or structured) Focus groups and group interviews. Surveys (online or physical surveys)What is research in research methodology with example? ›
Research is the careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or research problem using scientific methods. According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon.What is a research methodology essay? ›
The methodology in a research paper, thesis paper or dissertation is the section in which you describe the actions you took to investigate and research a problem and your rationale for the specific processes and techniques you use within your research to identify, collect and analyze information that helps you ...How do you start a sentence in research methodology? ›
This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook. The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.How do you start a methodology example? ›
Your methodology should begin by describing your research question and the type of data you used in answering it. You want to indicate why this type of data is appropriate, relevant, and important to the question being asked. You will then explain your process of data collection.What is an example of a sample methodology? ›
For example, a researcher intends to collect a systematic sample of 500 people in a population of 5000. He/she numbers each element of the population from 1-5000 and will choose every 10th individual to be a part of the sample (Total population/ Sample Size = 5000/500 = 10).How do you write a simple methodology example? ›
- Restate your thesis or research problem. ...
- Explain the approach you chose. ...
- Discuss any uncommon methodologies you use. ...
- Describe how you collected the data you used. ...
- Explain the methods you used to analyse the data you collected. ...
- Evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.What are the 5 parts of methodology? ›
- The logic of Inquiry (Qualitative or Quantitative)
- Research Setting and participants.
- Methods and Procedure of Data Collection.
- Methods and Procedure of Data Analysis.
- Ethical Issues.
Methodology (1,500 to 2,000 words) Research (800 to 1,000 words) Data analysis (2,000 to 2,200 words) Research findings (1,000 to 1,200 words)What is a good research methodology? ›
A good research methodology always explains the procedure, data collection methods and techniques, aim, and scope of the research. In a research study, it leads to a well-organized, rationality-based approach, while the paper lacking it is often observed as messy or disorganized.What is an example of a qualitative methodology in research? ›
A simple example of ethnographic qualitative methodology is when a researcher travels to a remote village to live with the society for years to research village people and their culture. Grounded Theory is another data collection method of qualitative research used across various disciplines.What are the four types of research methodology? ›
Data may be grouped into four main types based on methods for collection: observational, experimental, simulation, and derived.What is the introduction of the methodology paragraph? ›
It provides information on the participants, that is, the criteria for inclusion in the study, who the participants were and how they were sampled. The researcher describes the research design that was chosen for the purpose of this study and the reasons for this choice.
Section 1 – Introduction
As with all chapters in your dissertation or thesis, the methodology chapter should have a brief introduction. In this section, you should remind your readers what the focus of your study is, especially the research aims.
Step 1: Identify and develop your topic
Selecting a topic can be the most challenging part of a research assignment. Since this is the very first step in writing a paper, it is vital that it be done correctly.
A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph. Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence. Why are topic sentences important? Topic sentences help keep your writing focused and guide the reader through your argument.How do you write a methodology statement? ›
- Perform a risk assessment. ...
- Provide relevant company and job information. ...
- List hazards and outline safety responses. ...
- Include additional details. ...
- Write step-by-step instructions. ...
- Revise statements for new locations, equipment and guidelines. ...
- Be thorough. ...
- Communicate clearly.
Method is simply a research tool, a component of research – say for example, a qualitative method such as interviews. Methodology is the justification for using a particular research method.
Step 1 – Identify a question or problem.
The first step in the research process is to develop a research question. This can be a problem that needs to be solved, or some piece of information that is missing about a particular topic.
The methodology is a proper study or analysis of all the methods used in the research. Methods are simply behavior or tools used to select research techniques. The methodology is applied at the initial stage of the research/study. Methods are used and applied at a later stage of the study/ research.How do you write an introduction for a methodology chapter? ›
Introduce your research question(s) or hypothesis. Briefly describe your methodology and/or theoretical approach. Explain the aim of your research and what contribution it will make to the topic. Give an overview of the chapter outline of the thesis.Does methodology come before or after introduction? ›
In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results, discussion and conclusion.What is the difference between research method and research methodology? ›
The research method is defined as the procedure or technique applied by the researcher to undertake research. On the other hand, research methodology is a system of methods, used scientifically for solving the research problem.What are the three concepts of methodology? ›
Different authors methodology understand in different ways. Firstly, methodology is explained as a science of methods and the relationship between them. Secondly, methodology is understood as technique. Thirdly, methodology is a science of the activity organization.What are the three main types of research methodology? ›
- Qualitative Research.
- Quantitative Research.
- Mixed Methods Research.
Writing the methodology chapter is hard because research methodology is complex; because the territory is littered with terminology that is frequently used differently even within the same disciplines; and because there are significantly different expectations for what this section of a thesis should look like.How many pages is a methodology for a research paper? ›
In general, the proposal includes, but is not limited to: abstract (100-350 words), introduction / background (up to 1 page), statement of the problem (up to 1 page), rationale / research questions (up to 1 page), review of literature (about 7 pages), methodology (about 3 pages), significance / implications (1 page), ...How many pages should a methodology be in a research paper? ›
Chapter 3: Methodology
This part takes between 10-15 pages long. Focus point here is how research was conducted. Mention type of data-selection process, methods you used, ways in which you contacted sample population and gathered data.
Most frequently used methods include: Observation / Participant Observation. Surveys. Interviews.What is the main purpose of research methodology? ›
The purpose of a research methodology is to explain the reasoning behind your approach to your research - you'll need to support your collection methods, methods of analysis, and other key points of your work. Think of it like writing a plan or an outline for you what you intend to do.What is an example of a quantitative research methodology? ›
An example of quantitative research is the survey conducted to understand how long a doctor takes to tend to a patient when the patient walks into the hospital.What are the 5 methodology in qualitative research? ›
A popular and helpful categorization separate qualitative methods into five groups: ethnography, narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, and case study.How do you use qualitative methodology in a sentence? ›
Based on a qualitative methodology, the present results are limited in terms of generalizability. In the subsequent categorisation of responses from these open-ended survey questions, the authors followed the principles of thematic categorisation in qualitative methodology.What are the two main types of research methodology? ›
There are two main research methodologies: quantitative and qualitative. A third methodology, a combination of the two, is gaining acceptance as a way to improve and substantiate research findings.What is the commonly used types of research methodology? ›
Some common types of research methodology include quantitative research, Qualitative Research Methodology, mixed-method research, experimental research, and case study research.How do you write a research methodology proposal example? ›
- TITLE. Your title should give a clear indication of your proposed research approach or key question.
- BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE. You should include: ...
- RESEARCH QUESTION(S) ...
- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ...
- PLAN OF WORK & TIME SCHEDULE. ...
- A recap of your research question(s) ...
- A description of your design or method. ...
- The background and rationale for your design choice. ...
- An evaluation of your choice of method, and a statement of its limitations.
According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), a methodology is defined as “a system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline. Lean practices, Kanban, and Six Sigma are project management methodologies examples”.
A simple example of ethnographic qualitative methodology is when a researcher travels to a remote village to live with the society for years to research village people and their culture. Grounded Theory is another data collection method of qualitative research used across various disciplines.How do you describe a methodology in a project proposal? ›
Methods: The “How” of a Project
As a part of the proposal narrative, the methodology is where you can clearly outline how you will use the requested funds to accomplish your project's objectives. It is the component in the proposal narrative where you bridge the gap between the objectives and the eventual outcome.
(1) We've been developing a new methodology for assessing new products. (2) His current work centres upon the study of methodology in teaching. (3) The methodology and findings of the research team have been criticized. (4) There are some differences in methodology between the two studies.What is an example of a method statement? ›
The method statement should also cover the hazards associated with by-products of tasks and activities. For example, if any waste is produced, the document needs to cover how to dispose of that waste with safe and accurate execution.How do you describe methodology in a report example? ›
The method section of a report details how the research was conducted, the research methods used and the reasons for choosing those methods. It should outline: the participants and research methods used, e.g. surveys/questionnaire, interviews. refer to other relevant studies.